Cancer Origin Identified by Scientists Through Cell “Surgery”

The University of Warwick has discovered new information on a fundamental source of cancer formation during cell division (or mitosis), as well as potential treatments for avoiding it.

When a cell splits improperly, the two resultant cells do not have the same number of chromosomes, which can lead to cancer. Using "cell surgery," new research from Warwick Medical School has uncovered why and how this occurs.

Understanding the causes of aberrant cell division and the development of cancer may lead to its prevention.

When a cell splits properly, it duplicates each chromosome and divides the copies evenly between the two new cells. The mitotic spindle is a complicated mechanism in the cell that performs this job.

If something goes wrong at this step, the two new cells will be aneuploid, meaning they will not have the right number of chromosomes and will share genetic information incorrectly.

Because cancer cells are aneuploid, it's critical to understand how and why this arises in order to figure out where the sickness comes from.
This has been discovered by Professor Stephen Royle's research group at Warwick Medical School.

Mitosis is the process through which a cell copies its chromosomes and then segregates them, producing two identical nuclei in preparation for cell division. Mitosis is generally followed by equal division of the cell’s content into two genetically identical daughter cells.

They found that certain chromosomes can become lost and caught in a tangle of membranes around the cell's spindle, blocking appropriate chromosomal sharing and leading to aberrant cell division, which can lead to cancer.

They discovered it by performing'surgery' on live cells. The researchers devised a method for removing the tangle of membranes in which chromosomes become imprisoned, and as a consequence, the spindle retrieved the chromosomes, allowing regular healthy cell division to resume.

For the first time, it was demonstrated that chromosomes stuck in these membranes are a direct risk factor for the creation of malignant cells. Understanding this risk will help you avoid cancer more effectively.

“Many scientists working on cell division focus on the spindle: how it works and why it makes mistakes in cancer. In this paper we shifted the spotlight and looked at membranes inside dividing cells,” said Stephen Royle, Professor of Cell Biology at Warwick Medical School.

“We found that chromosomes can get trapped in membranes and this is a disaster for the dividing cell. It has the potential to change a normal cell into a cancer cell. Preventing this process may be a way to treat disease,” stated lead author Dr. Nuria Ferrandiz.
Cancer Origin Identified by Scientists Through Cell “Surgery” Cancer Origin Identified by Scientists Through Cell “Surgery” Reviewed by Lilit on May 26, 2022 Rating: 5
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